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THYROID: WHAT CAUSES IT? WHAT ARE ITS VARIETIES AND THERAPIES?

What is the thyroid gland?

The thyroid gland is a ductless gland on the front of your neck that has a butterfly shape. The gland creates hormones that control how quickly your metabolism moves. The system aids the body in utilising energy. When you have a thyroid issue, your metabolism drastically slows down because the production of thyroid hormones is interrupted. A variety of symptoms brought on by the fluctuation in hormone levels can impair your body’s regular operations.

Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, goitre, thyroid cancer, and thyroid nodules are a few examples of thyroid conditions. The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin, one of the hormones required for calcium metabolism, in addition to the thyroid hormones T3 (tri-iodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine). To validate your T3 and T4 hormone levels and to be sure you don’t have a thyroid issue, you must get a thyroid test.

What types of thyroid disorders are there?

There are two types of thyroid disorders:

1. Hypothyroidism: As a result of the thyroid gland’s reduced activity, symptoms such as slowness, lethargy, cold intolerance, reduced appetite, weight gain, drooping upper eyelids, high cholesterol, constipation, increased sleep, swelling of the face and limbs, coarse skin, irregular menstrual cycles, and infertility can occur.

2. Hyperthyroidism : The hyperactivity of the thyroid gland in this illness causes palpitations, trembling, anxiety, insomnia, heat intolerance, diarrhoea, weight loss despite increased appetite, prominence of the eyeballs, irregular menstruation, and low cholesterol.

What causes thyroid disorder?

There are several causes of thyroid disorders.

 Conditions that cause hypothyroidism: 

Thyroiditis is the medical term for thyroid gland inflammation. The amount of thyroid hormones generated is decreased.

A brief ailment called postpartum thyroiditis is often experienced by 5% to 9% of new mothers.

The most prevalent types of hypothyroidism are caused by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. It is a genetic, painless immune system condition.

Iodine deficiency affects around 100 million people worldwide. Iodine is used by the thyroid gland to make hormones. It is suggested to exclusively use iodized salt in order to treat this problem.

 Conditions that cause hyperthyroidism:

When someone has Graves’ disease, their thyroid gland becomes overactive and secretes an excessive amount of hormone. The thyroid gland enlarges as a result. Additionally called diffuse toxic goitre.

In a condition known as thyroiditis, the thyroid gland releases hormones that have been held there, leading to hyperthyroidism for a few weeks or months.

Nodules that form in the thyroid gland and begin secreting too much thyroid hormone are known as toxic adenomas. The body’s chemical balance is disrupted by this. Toxic autonomously functioning thyroid nodule refers to a single nodule, whereas toxic multi-nodular goitre refers to several nodules.

There is too much iodine in several cough syrups, cold remedies, and sinus medications. Some people may experience this as the thyroid producing either too little or too much hormone.

Thyroid disease treatment

Thyroid hormone pills are a common and efficient treatment for hypothyroidism. The dose must be monitored often. On the other side, medication can be used to treat hyperthyroidism. For a full recovery, it may occasionally be required to undergo surgery and radioiodine therapy. Even if a huge goitre is creating disruptive and compressive symptoms or for aesthetic reasons, surgery is still required. Finally, depending on the type and stage, thyroid cancer may require surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.

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